Third Generation 

History of Computing
Father of Computer

Third Generation of Computers (1963-1972)

In this era, there were several innovations in various fields of computer technology. These include Integrated Circuits (ICs), Semiconductor Memories, Microprogramming, various patterns of parallel processing and introduction of Operating Systems and time-sharing. In the Integrated Circuit, division there was gradual progress. Firstly, there were small-scale integration (SSI) circuits (having 10 devices per chip), which evolved to medium scale integrated (MSI) circuits (having 100 devices per chip). There were also developments of multi-layered printed circuits.

Parallelism became the trend of the time and there were abundant use of multiple functional units, overlapping CPU and I/O operations and internal parallelism in both the instruction and the data streams. Functional parallelism was first embodied in CDC6600, which contained 10 simultaneously operating functional units and 32 independent memory banks. This device of Seymour Cray had a computation of 1 million flopping point per second (1 M Flops). After 5 years CDC7600, the first vector processor was developed by Cray and it boasted of a speed of 10 M Flops. IBM360/91 was a contemporary device and was twice as first as CDC6600, whereas IBM360-195 was comparable to CDC7600. In case of language, this era witnessed the development of CPL i.e. combined programming language (1963). CPL had many difficult features and so in order to simplify it Martin Richards developed BCPL - Basic Computer Programming Language (1967). In 1970 Ken Thompson developed yet another simplification of CPL and called it B.

A wall of historic computers
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